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Select the software installation method, such as install the program with a key or not, and. Kemudian akan muncul tampilan seperti gambar dibawah, klik Instal. A new prompt appears. You will again take the default option in this prompt, which is to specify the other corner point. Click the other corner point, and the rectangle is drawn. In addition, the command is automatically terminated. Type F and press Enter to execute the Fillet option.

Type 2 or 5 for metric and press Enter. Click two points to draw the rectangle. It is acceptable to input the foot symbol f when using Architectural units. Draw another rectangle and observe that it also has rounded corners. Zero out the Fillet option by pressing the spacebar, typing F, pressing Enter, typing 0, and pressing Enter again. Click two points to draw a sharp-edged rectangle. The next time you launch AutoCAD, the Drawing Recovery Manager will automatically appear, allowing you to recover drawings that were open and possibly corrupted when the program unexpectedly came to a halt.

Type L and press Enter. Click two points on the canvas and then press the Esc key; the LINE command is terminated, but the single segment you just created remains. The Esc key will get you out of any running command or dialog box. Type E and press the spacebar. Click the line created in step 1 and Objective then right-click; the segment is erased.

Click each of the segments, one at a time. Click the Undo arrow on the Quick Access toolbar. The lines you deleted in step 4 reappear. Click the Redo button, and the lines disappear again.

Undo again and, without issuing any command, click two points The virtually unlimited around the same three lines to create a selection window completely number of undo and redo actions in surrounding them. Press the Delete key to erase the selected objects. AutoCAD means that it 8. A list of all the commands is a forgiving program.

Select Erase from the menu to past the point when you undo the previous step. You can draw Objective objects in Euclidean space using the following coordinate systems: Cartesian, polar, cylindrical, and spherical. Once you learn coordinate system syntax, you can use the systems interchangeably to draw accurately in any context. In two-dimensional drawings, the z-coordinate value of all objects is 0, so objects are expressed solely in terms of x- and y-coordinates see Figure 2.

Click the Line tool on the Draw panel. The origin point of Euclidean space has coordinates 0 in x and 0 in y, which is written as 0,0.

Therefore, relative coordinates are used more frequently. Click an arbitrary point in the Objective as the origin point, middle of the living room. The coordinates of the point you clicked relatively speaking.

Type 3 f,0 or 90,0 for metric and press Enter twice. Right-click in the drawing canvas and hold for longer than milliseconds to open the context menu. Type 0,6 f or 0, for metric and press Enter. A line measuring 6 f or 1. Type -3 f,0 or ,0 for metric and press Enter. Type 0,-6 f or 0, for metric and press Enter twice to complete a rectangle.

Click the Rectangle tool on the Draw panel and then click an arbitrary point at the bottom of the living room. Type 3 f,6 f or 90, for metric and press Enter. The same rectangle that you more laboriously drew with lines is already done. By default, zero 9. In addition, positive angles are typically measured Exercise 2. In polar east. These defaults can be set in the UNITS coordinates, points are located using two measurements: the distance from command.

East is the default direction of zero degrees. A 3 f or 90 for metric line is drawn at an arbitrary angle. Press L and then press the spacebar. Negative angles are measured clockwise from angle zero by default. UCS stands for user coordinate system. Type on and press Enter. An icon indicating the directions of the positive x- and y-axes is displayed in the lower-left corner of the canvas see Figure 2. Type UCS and press Enter. Type Z and press Enter. Type 90 and press Enter to rotate the coordinate system.

The new line has a different orientation with respect to the original line you drew in step 1 see Figure 2. Both lines were drawn at a degree angle but in different coordinate systems. To restore the current coordinate system to its original state, called the world coordinate system WCS , type UCS and press Enter twice. The plan is oriented to the WCS as it was initially. Draw Circles, Arcs, and Polygons Arcs are sections of circles. A polygon with a large number of segments may look like a circle but is fundamentally different.

There are many options for creating circles, arcs, and polygons. AutoCAD provides these options to make it easier to create accurate shapes based on all the types of geometric situations that typically arise in drawings. Zoom into the stove in the kitchen. Two of the burner circles are missing, and you will draw them.

On the Home tab, take a look at the Layer drop-down menu in the Layers panel and observe that Furniture is the current layer because you see www. Open the Layer drop- I down menu and select Equipment as the current layer see Figure 2. Drawn objects appear on whichever layer is current. Think of layers as invisible sheets of tracing paper that you draw on.

You will use preexisting points as guides in drawing the burners. Click the Circle tool on the Draw panel. Select Node from the context menu Figure 2. Type 3 g or 8 for metric and press Enter to create a circle with a radius of 3 g or 8 for metric.

J Note that typing the inch symbol is unnecessary. Never type m, cm, or mm to represent metric units. Right-click to repeat the last command. Hold down Shift and right-click to open the Object Snap context menu. I Select Node and then click point B shown in Figure 2. Object snaps listed in 7. Hold Shift again, right-click, and choose Node. Click point C shown the context menu must in Figure 2. You will 8.

Click the arrow under the Circle tool in the Draw panel and select learn how to set up 3-Point. Click the circle you running object snaps in Chapter 3. Hold Shift, right-click again, and type G.

Notice that this letter is underlined in the word Tangent in the context menu refer to Figure 2. Click the circle on the bottom left. AutoCAD draws a circle precisely tangent to the three others see Figure 2. Erase all three point objects and the last circle you drew to leave the four burners of the stove. In the next set of steps you will use one such arc option to draw a door swing.

Pan and zoom into the bathroom by dragging and rotating the mouse wheel. Select Doors from the Layer drop-down menu in the Layers panel. Select Center, Start, End.

This is the sequence in which information must be entered. Hold Shift and right-click. Select Endpoint from the context menu and click the start point B shown in Figure 2.

The arc appears, and the command is completed. You can draw these shapes inside or outside a circle or specify the edge length, as shown in the following steps. Make the Furniture layer current by selecting it from the Layer drop-down menu in the Layers panel.

Zoom into the living room. Type 4 and press Enter to draw a square. A 2 f or 60 in metric square appears. Press Enter to repeat the last command, type 6, and press Enter to draw a hexagon. Click a point in the living room where you want to center the hexagon. Press Enter to accept the default Inscribed In Circle option.

Type 1f or 30 for metric as the radius of the circle and press Enter. Use Fillet and Chamfer Fillet and Chamfer are tools that create transitions between objects.

Fillet creates arcs, and Chamfer creates lines. Fillet and chamfer 2. Press the down-arrow key three more times and press Enter to previewing works only select the Distance option in the Dynamic Input display see if When A Command Figure 2.

Click the second line to perform the chamfer and complete the command. The I chamfer is shown in the middle of Figure 2. Type 1f or 30 for metric and press Enter. Click the second line to sticky; they stay the commit to that particular radius. In the case of crossing lines, you must select the lines on the portions that you want to keep, as shown in these steps. Type F and press Enter. Press the down-arrow key to access the Dynamic Input display and select Radius. Type 0 and press Enter.

Now Fillet will not create an arc at all. Click the points A and B, as shown in Figure 2. The lines are joined at their endpoints, and the remaining portions of the lines beyond their intersection point are trimmed away.

Now You Know In this chapter, you learned how to pan and zoom around 2D drawings and draw lines, rect- angles, circles, arcs, and polygons. You have filleted and chamfered sets of lines, used absolute and relative coordinate systems, and created objects using specific measurements. In addition, you now know how to cancel, erase, and undo, and how to correct your mistakes. Drawing aids are essential modes and methods of entering data that, once mastered, allow you to create measured drawings with ease.

I highly recommend learning all of the drawing aids because they will make you a more productive draftsperson. Most drawing aids can be toggled on or off from the application status bar. Additional settings and dialog boxes are accessible by right-clicking the individual status bar toggles. Snap constrains your ability to draw objects so that they automatically start and end precisely at grid intersections. Grid and Snap are most helpful when used together so that you can draw objects that snap to the grid.

Figure 3. Choose the acad. Open the Customization menu on the extreme right of the status bar and select Units and LineWeight. Click in the drawing window to close the Customization menu.

Change Units to Architectural if you are using Imperial units; leave Decimal selected if you are using metric units. Change Grid X spacing to 1gg or 10 for metric and press Tab; Grid Y spacing updates with the same value.

I Click OK. Zoom or pan as 5. Click the second point, 2f intersections in the drawing window. Open the Default drop-down list, select 0. Type L and press Enter twice to continue drawing from the last point. Toggle Grid off in the status bar. Move the cursor horizontally to the right from the point at which the rubber band is anchored. Click the drawing canvas when the dynamic input value reads 2f-0g I or mm , as shown in Figure 3. Snap can be used independently of grid; the grid is merely a visual drawing aid.

Transpparent Commands Status bar buttons can be toggled on or off and their settings adjusted while another command is running. Commands that operate while another command is running are called transparent commands. Typing an apostrophe before a command forces it to be run transparently. Specify first point: Employ Ortho and Polar Tracking Ortho mode aids in drawing orthogonall horizontal or vertical lines.

J When Polar Tracking is Exercise 3. Toggle off Snap mode by pressing the F9 key. Toggle on Ortho mode by clicking the Ortho toggle in the status bar or by pressing the F8 key. Ortho mode constrains the line vertically, I and typing in an explicit value obviates the need for Snap. The dash is a necessary 5. Toggle off Ortho mode by clicking its status bar button.

Right- whole and fractional Objective inches. Move the cursor around and observe that green dashed lines appear in eight locations around a circle in 45 increments. Move the cursor to the right relative to the last point, type 2 f or for metric , and press Enter see Figure 3. Just like Ortho mode, Polar Tracking guarantees that the last line drawn was perfectly aligned to the set increment; you merely had to move the cursor in the general direction you wanted to direct the new line.

Ortho and Polar Tracking save you from having to type in angles or coordinate values explicitly or to even think about coordinate systems.

Instead of being tied to a spatial grid as with Snap , PolarSnap is based on relative polar coordinates. Exercise 3. Toggle on Snap by clicking its icon on the status bar. Right-click the same button and choose Snap Settings from the context menu.

Type 1g or 10 for metric in the Polar Distance text box this dialog was shown in Figure 3. Click OK. Click when the value is 6gg or mm see Figure 3. Move the cursor vertically down and click to draw a line when the value reads 1f or mm. Right-click to end the LINE command. Press the spacebar to repeat the LINE command. Toggle off Snap mode by clicking its icon on the status bar, thus disabling PolarSnap.

Move the cursor horizontally to the right until it overshoots the last line drawn in step 5. Click to draw the line without worrying about its length see Figure 3. Right-click to complete the command. Type F for Fillet and press Enter. Verify that Radius is set to 0 in the Command window and then click the vertical and horizontal lines on the portions of the lines that you want to keep marked A and B in Figure 3. Select Running Object Snaps The lines you have drawn thus far are all precisely connected because they were chained together as they were drawn or their coordinates were known.

Aside from these special circumstances, lines must be connected using object snaps to ensure accuracy. Press Z and then Enter. Zoom in again if necessary until you can see that the endpoint of the line you just drew is not on the horizontal line see Figure 3.

No matter how carefully you clicked point A in the previous step, the line you drew will not be on the edge it will either fall short of it or overshoot it. You can toggle on one Click Zoom Previous again if necessary to return to the original object snap type at a time using the Object view. Choose Object Snap 4. Click the line drawn in step 3, and press the Delete key. Settings from this menu 5. Toggle on Object Snap on the status bar. Right-click the same icon to access the Select All and Clear All buttons.

Toggle off Polar Tracking on the status bar. Move the cursor close to point A in Figure 3. Move the cursor down to point B and wait until the green marker appears, perpendicular marker appears. When it does, click the drawing AutoCAD will calculate the desired point exactly. Press Esc to end the command. This line is connected precisely at both ends because I Object Snap was used. Zoom into point A or B in Figure 3. Click Zoom Extents in the Navigation bar to return to the initial overall view.

Hold down Shift, right-click to open the Object Snap context menu, and choose Nearest. Object snaps invoked from the context menu override any running object snaps. Click point A, shown in Figure 3. Nearest ensures that the new line is I attached somewhere along the edge of the horizontal line. Choosing None in the Snap context menu overrides any running snaps with no snap. Move the cursor close to point B, as shown in Figure 3. Harness the From Snap Rather than snapping to an existing geometrical feature such as an endpoint, midpoint, intersection, and so on , how do you snap a set distance and direction from one?

Answer: Use the From snap, as shown in the following exercise. Hold Shift and right-click to open the Object Snap context menu. Select From in the context menu. Click point A shown in Figure 3. This is the point from which you will specify a displacement.

Move the cursor to point B and wait for the running perpendicular snap marker to appear. When it does, click to specify the second point of the line. Select the line you just drew and press the Delete key. Apply Object Snap Tracking Object snap tracking is for situations where you want to snap to a point that has a geometric relationship with two or more snap points. Toggle on Object Snap Tracking by clicking its icon on the status bar.

Move the cursor over point A in Figure 3. Do not click yet. Move the cursor over point B in Figure 3. Move the cursor down vertically to establish the second tracking line. Again, do not click yet. Move the cursor down until both tracking lines intersect. When they do, click point C to set the center point of the circle.

Type 9 or for metric and press Enter to create a circle with a radius of 9gg or mm. Click the Rectangle tool on the Draw panel. Move the cursor over the endpoint marked A in Figure 3. Move the cursor to point B in Figure 3. Type 1f,-6 or , for metric and press Enter. The rectangle and drawing is complete see Figure 3. Now You Know In this chapter, you learned how to draw with Grid and Snap when your geometry conforms to a spatial grid; how to use Ortho and Polar Tracking to draw horizontal, vertical, and angled lines; how to use PolarSnap when angled lines are measured in set increments; how to use running object snaps to save time connecting objects; how to use the From snap to draw in relation to another object; and finally, how to use object snap tracking to snap to points implied by the position of other snap points.

Most of your time will be spent editing entities. In complex drawings you have to plan how you will select only those entities you want to edit while leaving all other entities unaffected. You will learn a number of techniques for adding and removing entities from the selection sett, which is the collection of entities your chosen editing command acts upon. In complex drawings, selecting would be tedious if you had to click one object at a time. Zoom into Stair A in the building core.

The prompt in the Command window reads as follows: ERASE Select objects: This is the same way almost every command begins—with the opportunity to create a selection set. Click point A and then B, as shown in Figure 4.

Observe that a Objective transparent implied window appears between these points. The www. This particular selection includes the stair arrows, handrails, and three lines representing stair treads near the break lines.

Type R for Remove and press Enter. Whatever the green window crosses is selected. The crossing selection removes the handrail and two of the stair treads because the selection was made at the Remove objects: prompt. Click point A and then point B, as shown in Figure 4. This implied window selects the short line segment trapped in the break line and removes it from the selection set. Type A for Add and press Enter. Click both of the break lines to add them to the selection set.

All of Objective the break line segments are selected in two clicks because the break lines are polylines. Hold Shift and click the break lines again. They are removed from the selection set without being at the Remove objects: prompt. Click point A, as shown in Figure 4.

Press the down-arrow key to J expand the dynamic input menu onscreen. Select WPolygon. The related CPolygon option creates a polygonal crossing A window, shown in transparent green. The Fence option allows you to draw a multisegmented line that selects whatever it crosses. Click points B through H, as shown in Figure 4. Only those objects completely contained within the borders of the blue window will be selected. Press Enter to make the selection. Square blue dots appear on the selected objects—these are called grips, and you will learn to use them later in this chapter.

Press Esc to deselect. Toggle on Ortho mode in the status bar. Without being concerned with measurements or accuracy, draw a line under the word Stairr, a circle around the letter A, and a rectangle around the entire section, in that order see Figure 4. Select the circle and the line and press Enter. The grips for the circle and line appear; press Esc to deselect. Click the Erase icon on the Modify panel. At the Select objects: prompt, type P for Previous and press Enter.

The circle and line are You can select the entire drawing by typing selected because they comprise the set of objects that was selected all at any Select previously. Press Enter again to delete these objects. Type L for Last and press Enter. The rectangle is selected because it was the www. There can be only one last object. Press Enter again to delete the rectangle. Click the dot at the end of the stair direction line shown in Figure 4.

When Selection Cycling is on, you are presented with the Selection dialog box whenever your selection is ambiguous. Hover the cursor over the items in the list, and each one is highlighted in blue on the drawing canvas. Select the line in the list that highlights the stair direction line as shown in Figure 4. Click this dot. Select one of the vertical tread lines in Stair A by clicking it. Right- click and choose Select Similar from the context menu that appears.

All lines on the same layer are selected; you might have to zoom out to see both stairs see Figure 4. Other object types on the same layer remain unselected because they were not similar enough. Press Esc. Here you can choose criteria to determine which object properties must match in order to be selected by this useful com- mand: Color, Layer, Linetype, Linetype Scale, Lineweight, Plot Style, Object Style, or Name.

Exercise 4. Click the chair that is not in front of a desk to select it. Position the cursor over the selected chair but not over its grip. Drag the chair while holding down the left mouse button to move it closer to the upper desk; see Figure 4. To position the chair more precisely, click the Move tool on the Modify panel. Select the chair you just moved in the previous step and press Enter. Click the base point at the midpoint of the front of the chair point A in Figure 4.

Click the second point B in Figure 4. The chair is moved precisely to the midpoint of the desk edge. Press the spacebar to repeat MOVE. Type P and press Enter twice to Objective select the same chair again.

Type D and press Enter once more to choose the Displacement option. Any coordinates you enter are relative to the origin, so typing the symbol is unnecessary. Click the Copy tool on the Modify panel.

Select the chair you just moved and press Enter twice. Select the midpoint of the desk point B in Figure 4. Press the spacebar to repeat the previous command, select both desks Objective and chairs with crossing windows but not the low partition between them , and press Enter.

Select point A in Figure 4. Type A and press Enter. Type 3, press Enter, and then click point B in Figure 4. Pan over to the Conference room. Select the Object option by clicking Object on the command prompt. Select the inner-left wall line and watch as the crosshair cursor changes to parallel the angle of the wall see Figure 4. Toggle on Ortho on the status bar if it is not already on. Type CO for Copy and press Enter. Select the chair that is against the left wall of the Conference room and press Enter.

Click an arbitrary base point by clicking in the empty space of the Conference room. Move the cursor down along the direction of the wall and click the Array option. The command prompt reads as follows: Enter number of items to array: Type 5 and press Enter.

When the spacing looks right see Figure 4. The crosshair cursor returns to its default orientation. Numerically speaking, you typically rotate by degrees or scale by percentages about base points.

On the other hand, you can avoid using numbers entirely by choosing the Reference options, which let you rotate or scale selection sets in relation to other objects. Click the Rotate button on the Modify panel, select the upper lounge chair, and press Enter.

Toggle off Ortho and Polar Tracking if it is on in the status bar. Move the cursor around the point, and observe that a rubber-band line connects the base point to your cursor and a ghosted image of the chair is superimposed over the original chair representation. Move the cursor until the rubber band aligns more or less perpendicularly to the wall behind the chair see Figure 4. Click the chair that you just rotated to select it without issuing an explicit command. Hold the Ctrl key, and repeatedly press the arrow keys to nudge the selected object a few pixels at a time.

Nudge the chair so that it is a similar distance from the wall and the round table as compared to the other armchair in Reception. Press Esc to deselect all. Zoom out and focus on the upper-left quadrant of the building. Select the furniture group shown in Figure 4. Select midpoint A as the base point, and select midpoint B as the second point.

Type RO for Rotate and press Enter. Type L for Last and press Enter twice. Select the same midpoint where the furniture group was attached to the midpoint of the shell window wall as the base point of the rotation.

Instead of specifying the reference angle with a number, you will determine the angle interactively. Type and press Enter to input the base point of the rotation as the base point of the reference angle. Click endpoint A as shown in Figure 4. Pan over to the upper-right quadrant of the building and zoom in on the oversized round table. Click the Scale icon on the Modify panel, select the circle representing the table, and press Enter.

Right-click the Object Snap icon in the status bar and select Center from the context menu. Click outside the menu to close it and then snap to the center of the circle by hovering over the circle and then moving the cursor to its center and clicking. Toggle on Ortho on the status bar, and move the chairs closer to the table, both horizontally and vertically.

Work with Arrays Arrays produce single associative objects, which you can edit at any time to alter the parameters of the array.

You will learn how to create two types of associative arrays: rectangular and polar. Type OB for Object and press Enter.

Select the left side of the bottom-left edge of the table in the Small Conference room. Click the Rectangular Array tool on the Modify panel. Select both chairs on the sides of the conference table and press Enter.

Change Columns to 1 and Rows to 5 on the temporary Array Creation tab that appears on the ribbon. Type 2 f4 72 for metric in the Between text box in the Rows panel and press the Tab key I see Figure 4. Select the Associative toggle in the Properties panel if it is not already blue.

Click Close Array on the ribbon. Select one of the new chairs and observe that all the arrayed chairs are selected as a unit. Click Close Array. Type UCS and press Enter twice to return to the world coordinate system.

Type AR for Array and press Enter. Type PO for Polar and press Enter. Type 12 in the Items text box on the ribbon and press Tab. The table is a bit too large. Click the circle to select the table. Type 4 f6 or for metric to set a new radius.

Press Enter and then Esc. Click any one of the chairs to select the polar array. Hover the cursor over the base point grip and choose Stretch Radius see Figure 4. Type 5f9 or for metric ; then press Enter and Esc. The chairs more closely wrap around the smaller table.

Instead, these com- mands are used for arraying points. Click the Extend tool on the Modify panel it is nested under Trim. Select the inner line of the bottom core wall and press Enter.

Create a crossing window by clicking points A and B, as shown in This line will be the boundary edge that Figure 4. Four tread lines are extended. Click each remaining you will extend the tread line, one at a time, to extend all the stair treads to the core wall. Press Enter to end the command.

Type TR for Trim and press Enter. Select the upper and lower handrail lines to act as cutting edges and press Enter. Make a narrow crossing window in the center of the handrail to trim away all the treads that pass through the handrails and press Enter. Type EX for Extend and press Enter. Hold Shift and click each one of the treads passing through the handrail. Type and press Enter. Click the line segment on the right side of the incomplete copy machine to lengthen it toward the right.

Type S for Stretch and press Enter. Click points A and B as shown in Figure 4. Toggle on Ortho if it is not already on. Click a base point off to the right side of the door opening, well away from the geometry so that you do not inadvertently snap to anything.

Move the cursor down www. The wall, door, and swing end up more or less centered on the wall. Click the Offset tool on the Modify panel. Select the elliptical arc at the bottom edge of the Copy Room. The command line asks you to specify a point to determine on which side of the selection to offset the new object.

In this case, click anywhere above the elliptical arc, and a new ellipse is created such that its curvature matches the original but is spaced a set distance away. Press Esc to exit the command. Type F for Fillet , press Enter, and click the new elliptical arc and the inner line of the adjacent vertical wall on the right.

Press the spacebar to repeat the FILLET command and click the elliptical arc and inner line of the adjacent vertical wall on the left. The intersections between the wall objects are cleaned up see Figure 4. Zoom into the furniture system that is missing two desks in the upper-right quadrant of the building. Click the Mirror tool on the Modify panel. Make crossing and individual line selections to select the desks and chairs shown in Figure 4.

The command line reads as follows: Specify first point of mirror line: Click point A, and then move the cursor up and click point B to draw the mirror line. Double-click the mouse wheel to zoom to the drawing extents.

Select the furniture system indicated in Figure 4. The origin point is at Mirror a copy here. Select this group. Press Enter to complete the command and decline to erase the source object by pressing Enter again. Select the inner line of the window wall directly below the sofas, right-click, and choose Properties from the context menu. Make a note that the Angle property of this line is Click both sofas and the coffee table in between them to select all three. Click the grip in the center of the coffee table to activate it and turn it red.

Press the spacebar again. Type ‘CAL to invoke the command-line calculator transparently. Type Negative angles rotate 6. You learned several methods for selecting objects so they can be edited with these commands. In addition, you learned how to edit objects directly, without issuing commands, by editing with grips. You can also create splines that seamlessly blend between existing straight or curved objects while maintaining smooth or tangent continuity. Exercise 5. Figure 5.

Click the Polyline tool on the Draw panel of the ribbon. Type A for Arc and press Enter. Toggle off Ortho and Polar Tracking modes if they are on. Observe that the arc you are drawing by default opposes the natural curvature of the lake see Figure 5. Type S for Second Point and press Enter. Click point B shown in I Figure 5. Right-click the Object Snap toggle in the status bar and turn on Node and Endpoint in the menu.

Toggle off any other snap options that are selected. Toggle on Object Snap if it is off. Click each subsequent node around the left half of the lake until you By turning on Node reach point C in Figure 5. Press the spacebar to repeat the last command. Click point D shown in Figure 5. Click each subsequent node around the right side of the lake until I you reach point E in Figure 5. Press Enter. Click the Offset tool in the Modify panel. Type 6 f or 2 for metric to guide you in the and press Enter.

Click the left polyline you drew around the lake in exercise. Click the right polyline and click outside the lake. Click necessary when drawing the outer arc surrounding the pentagonal structure and then click curves on your own. Click the Trim tool in the Modify panel. Press Enter to select all objects as potential cutting edges, and click the portions of the arcs that overlap in the top highlighted area in Figure 5. Zoom into the lower highlighted area, and trim the arcs at their tips so that they meet at their endpoints.

Pan to the building at the bottom of the lake. Click the lower-left Objective polyline to select it. Click the endpoint grip, move it down a short distance, and click again see Figure 5. Press Esc and then click the Undo button in the Quick Access toolbar. Click the Arc tool in the Draw panel, hold down Shift and right-click, and choose Nearest from the context menu. Click points A, B, and C in Figure 5.

Press Enter twice to end and restart the ARC command. Type J for Join and press Enter. Press Enter, and the command line reads as follows: 14 segments joined into 1 polyline There are 14 segments if you include all the arcs that make up the two polylines. You are left with a single polyline marking the outer edge of the path.

Press the spacebar to repeat the JOIN command. Select the three objects along the inner edge of the path, which includes two polylines and the arc above the pentagon. Press Enter, and multiple segments are joined into one polyline see Figure 5. The streamlined collinear lines even if there is a gap between JOIN command makes the older workflow unnecessary.

Use it on lines, 2D and them. The resulting object type depends on what was selected. Instead of stretching a cord from two pins to a moving pencil point which is how you draw an ellipse by hand , in AutoCAD you specify the lengths of its major and minor axes see Figure 5. J The center of an ellipse Minor axis Center is the intersection of its major and minor axes. Begin by opening Ex Zoom into the area in the lower left where the remaining point objects are located.

The size of point objects is recalculated when the drawing is regenerated. Open the Ellipse menu in the Draw panel and choose the Center Objective method. Click the center point, the end of the major axis, and the end of the minor axis, shown in Figure 5. Expand the Modify panel and click the Break button. Select the ellipse. Every ellipse has four quadrant points 5. Right-click the Object Snap toggle in the status bar, and select corresponding to the Quadrant from the context menu.

Click the quadrant point opposite cardinal directions: the point object marking the end of the major axis see Figure 5. The lower half of the ellipse remains, leaving an I elliptical arc. Select the elliptical arc. Press Enter to accept the default when asked if you want to align the block with the selected object. Type 13 for the number of segments and press Enter. Delete the three points used in drawing the ellipse, the elliptical arc itself, and the white circle, which is the original Shrub block.

You deleted the layout geometry and are now left with precisely positioned shrubs. Fortunately, it is easy to switch between CVs and Fit Points editing modes, so you can make up your mind about which method to use to suit the situation. A control frame connects CVs and represents the maximum possible curvature between adjacent CVs. You will now draw a CV spline around the lake.

Continue clicking points all the way around the lake. Click the I spline you just drew to reveal its CVs see Figure 5. Position the cursor over a CV and observe the multifunction grip menu. Select Stretch Vertex, move the cursor, and click to relocate that particular CV. Try adding and removing vertices using the corresponding choices on the multifunction grip menu see Figure 5. Another way to affect the shape of a spline is to adjust the weights of individual CVs.

Vertices with higher 8. Type W for Weight and press Enter. Zoom out until you can see all the vertices, locate the red one, press Enter repeatedly to choose the default option Next , and move the red CV one position at a time until your chosen CV turns red.

The weights you Type 2 and press Enter see Figure 5. The spline will get closer need to enter depend to the red CV and its control frame. Type where you placed the a value appropriate to your particular situation and press Enter. CVs when creating the curve in step 2. We set a weight of 0. Type X for Exit and press Enter. Type IM for Image and press Enter. The External References palette I appears. The curve is drawn closer to the control frame near the weighted CV.

Right-click Pond in the External References palette and choose Detach. Close the External References palette. Select the pond spline and change its color to Blue in the Properties panel.

The pond is now represented by a blue curve rather than a blue image see Figure 5. The SKETCH command is admittedly dif- ficult to use with a mouse, so if you have a stylus and a drawing tablet, try using them for a more natural drawing feel. Zoom into the area at the bottom of the lake. Expand the Draw panel and click the Spline Fit tool at the top left.

Toggle on Object Snap mode in the status bar with Node snap on and click the top point, the point on the right, the bottom, and then the one on the left.

Type C for Close and press Enter. This will be the start of an abstract tree representation. Expand the Modify panel and click the Edit Spline button. Select the curve you drew in step 2.


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