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CAD Fundamentals For Architecture PDF Book | Free PDF Books

Oct 21,  · ArchDaily offers a list of multiple valuable Revit courses to help you learn the advanced concepts and basic modeling techniques. Some of the most preferred courses on the list are Mass Building using Autodesk Revit, Learning Autodesk Revit Architecture , Advanced Revit Architecture Training, and more. Taking up these classes will. 夏の夜を圧倒的に快適に。新次元素材と高通気性の組み合わせで実現した、夏の快適温度が長く続く「ザ・アイス27」公式. This course is designed to familiarize the student with the operation of computer-based CAD using AutoCAD software. An introduction to AutoCAD functions include: drawing functions, simple editing, viewing commands, dimensioning, and plotting. The course will outline the software applications and provide practical exercise throughout the term.


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People also downloaded these PDFs. People also downloaded these free PDFs. Feasibility of visualization and simulation applications to improve work zone safety and mobility by Manop Kaewmoracharoen. Download Download PDF. Translate PDF. CAD Fundamentals for Architecture www. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

Many be used as a global reference rather than a guide to any one architecture and design courses emphasize the importance specific type of software.

The programs included are some of Increasingly, computer-aided-design, or CAD, is those most commonly used in education and in industry: becoming the professional norm in terms of both creativity SketchUp, Vectorworks, Form Z, AutoCAD, 3ds Max, Maya and efficiency, and this book examines the fundamentals and Photoshop. There is Different software programs are examined alongside a consistent formal language within CAD that references each other, so that you can see how similar tasks are Chapters 1 and 2 guide you through the basics of 2D drawing and 3D modelling, while step- by-step tutorials take you through the process of creating a building from scratch.

Step-by-step integral part of architectural design and manufacture. A tutorials are included in each chapter, showing how to draw, comprehensive resource section includes troubleshooting model and render a building from start to finish using a tips, a glossary, and suggestions for further reading as well as variety of programs, and tip boxes provide further references useful websites.

This will allow you to develop It is my hope that this book will assist architecture and a broad awareness of what can be achieved with CAD and interior design students as well as existing practitioners who become less reliant on one specific software type, to become are unfamiliar with CAD or whose skills are rusty.

A common a global user. This book offers a solid the book are brought together to show the step-by-step grounding in the fundamentals of CAD, and shows how to rendering of an iconic architectural building — the Barcelona complete architectural visuals to a professional standard. This demonstrates how the constituent parts of a project come together. There is also information on Building Information Modelling BIM , which is fast becoming an Chapters 3 and 4 show how to render a building and produce presentation visuals.

Clear tutorials allow you to work through the process yourself. Throughout this first section I will introduce a simple way of thinking about and using CAD packages. It may not be the quickest — there are always quicker ways to do things, although this comes with practise — but the following core principles relate more closely to traditional drawing board practice than they do to traditional CAD instruction.

Relating back to drawing board practice is a key mindset to get into before you approach CAD drawing. Below This sectional perspective of the Atelier Bow Wow house the practice’s office shows unprecedented orthographic detail.

Visual rendering can provide the look of a scheme; drawing, and particularly this level of orthographic CAD drawing, can provide us with the ergonomic and construction information to rigorously illustrate the building. The first is the board itself; pen — in most cases it is as quick as any CAD program. The obvious difference is the scale of turn on a computer and start up a CAD program! The first thing we can precision of drawing information.

With this core tool set you are able to draw anything — any shape, form or construction — and, as seen throughout Navigation architectural history, create complex building forms. Navigation equates to the use of the eye and hand. In CAD terms we can also create any drawn Within drawing board practice you move the slide rule representation through a similar limited tool set.

Software and the set square to navigate to the area of the drawing providers spend much time developing new tools and that you wish to develop. For CAD practice the same thing interfaces to speed up the process of drawing construction is performed through the movement and commands of but if you can put this to one side, particularly as a novice the mouse.

As mentioned earlier, there a drawing has been greatly improved and simplified are much more advanced methods of CAD construction through the development of multi mouse buttons.

The but you should start by focusing on the competence of a almost universal introduction of the scroll wheel middle similar tool set to that of drawing board practice. Within most CAD programs a press down on the middle scroll wheel allows you to pan move the drawing to your desired area which, along with a scroll of the same wheel, allows you to zoom in and out of that desired area.

Many people find that when initially using a CAD program they lose the drawing — a key tip is to take a step back to look and find the whole picture; in CAD terms this is universally done through the Zoom Extents command. Unlike the drawing functionality. This provides you with interface. They are present, quite often automated, the ability to pick up a line at a given point from as a way to provide the user with the option of an existing drawn line.

You will have the option Top to bottom drawing a straight line vertically or horizontally to pick it up at an end point, midpoint or even a throughout: AutoCAD; SketchUp; Vectorworks or even at polar increments. From the beginning parallel point. One of the by CAD programs. In the case of AutoCAD there major productivity savings of CAD compared to are many types of line provided: multiline, hand drawing is due to the fact that the Line tool construction, parallel, etc.

In the days adaptability the polyline stands out as the modern of the drawing board you would construct in pencil day equivalent of a pencil. Other The rectangle Generally, when starting out I think using the rectangle tool is not particularly important. The arc The Arc tool equates to the compass. Within CAD the Arc is practice for a novice is the ability to chain the arcs the tool of choice when creating curves because to form very complex variations of a single line.

This can then be used to form a door swing than using one of the other spline or free curve or an arched wall structure. When drawing arcs it line tools provided by software developers. This is where the addition of grip editing supersedes the use of the drawing board. In drawing board practice you would spend www. Where the arc provided us with an open curve, arc form. The central point of the radius is typically the point where you would place the compass point, but in CAD terms the position of this can always be moved.

In lines you draw will be unwanted. Practices within nearly all cases of CAD software this is as simple hand drawing varied greatly and many ingenious as selecting the desired line and looking for your ways of removing lines were employed — for the Delete button; there is no need to search for an simple removal of a draft line a rubber would icon, as it is the simplest of commands to execute be used for pencil drawing; for inked drawings by keyboard.

It is a useful tool that helps you either tidy drawing that you did not want to be removed. The Copy command has advanced The standard icon for Move is the compass symbol. As a beginner, it is important to keep typing CO. Take time ability to replicate instantly.

In the days of the to familiarize yourself with this basic operation. Once you have distance and direction to copy or move an object or mastered that then you can experiment with array. It is particularly useful when constructing Note that in SketchUp you can only offset a co- wall thickness or for the basic multi-copy of drawn planar object, e. Each interfaces, and year-to-year you may find that the UI has manufacturer of CAD software has its own version, changed. While these improvements are often helpful but there are common attributes between the different they can be equally frustrating, as you may need to search software types.

The UI will often contain the navigation, for some time to find a specific tool. The most useful interface commands are usually executed in the same manner. The feature is the icon, as these will often indicate clearly the drawing setups in the following section are basic and relate tool function.

A text box explanation will pop up as you to a typical UI setup. Whatever software you use, it can move your mouse across the icon. The majority of CAD be beneficial to give yourself a few minutes to orientate software will also have a command line or script interface yourself. In many cases you’ll be able to customize the UI where specific commands or operations can be performed. Today there are three important user interfaces to work with.

The latest generation is based on the ribbon format, an interface that is geared more towards a icon approach. AutoCAD Classic is a useful and timeless interface that is often favoured as it has been a familiar setup since release A new interface recently introduced is the Mac version, which retains the same tool operations but has a very different interface to its Windows counterparts. There is no need Command: to select the area, if you just type [when in command Further sub levels of tool are also adjusted through this interface.

AutoCAD has recently introduced a dynamic input method for this interface, where the keyboard entry occurs in the screen environment right. If you have a building that is mm x mm you can use this function to set the MODEL drawing page to these limits, e. When you reset the drawing view it will always return to the limits you have set.

When used in architectural practice the practice will often have its own template to work with. Other templates are geared up for other environments such as 3D. In the workplace you may load a template that has a title box format, with company name and other drawing info.

We will go through this now. First, familiarize yourself with the drawing aids: Ortho is always based in the bottom left menu. This is the tool that equates to the set square and parallel motion. The Object Snap settings are also located here. These are the three drawing aids that you will use most often. There is also a set of tools highlighted on the When the cursor has a square and crosshair These are your Basic navigation tools.

Combined with the middle mouse button present it is ready for a command Your mouse is a key navigation tool zoom and pan feature, these provide your basic navigation tools. Save Current As The screen changes into its traditional look, Workspace Settings Workspace settings www. However, if you want to go straight into the drawing task without using the following setup Clean Screen then simply proceed to the tutorial on page This functionality also exists in many other familiar programs, such as Microsoft Word.

Check that you have the Command prompt open. If not, you may press Escape to bring the square back up. Escape is a useful button for the beginner and does exactly what it says — lets you escape and try again.

CAD software. This is particularly useful commands. Additional format operations such as Styles, can be troublesome. In Wireframe mode you can focus Materials, Layers and Scenes can be opened with the on the drawing of lines rather than the creation of closed Windows menu.

Wireframe also relates the drawing environment to that being used in other programs — it sets you up in a The status bar will tell you what options are available for 2D line environment. You should read this as some of the options drawing as a line drawing.

Below The same square in Wireframe mode. The shading is turned off Select objects. Shift to extend select. Drag mouse to select multiple. Measurements as we want to be in a 2D drawing environment. Status bar Measurements toolbar www. To draw relative direct and annotation. The principle is similar to that you would adopt on a drawing The pull-down menu contains most of the commands found board.

You can of common drawing tools needed: Layers, Scale, Zoom, course change both the scale and page size. Working Planes and Views are all grouped in this area. Object info, Attributes, etc. Leave the Tools, Snapping and The basic tool set is the default, you can open the tool sets Object Info palettes open as they will be useful. Vectorworks if you need to.

Layer P L: A: 0. You will experience layers in using any program that has a layer most if not all digital creative programs. With layers a drawing may not always be what it seems, it will often have many layers of additional information that you can access by turning the layers on and off. The ability to compose different types of information into different drawings, from one drawing file, is a very powerful organizational and data asset.

Below is an exploded drawing of a typical layer stack. Colour Layer organization: types and uses 2D and 3D layers You can use the layer system in most CAD programs to keep 2D and 3D work separated, so one layer could be for 2D linework then another for 3D solids.

Drawing and Annotation You can place dimensions and 3D object annotations on different layers, so you are able to hide the annotation and dimension layers so you can carry on drawing in objects. This is helpful, as too much linework Dotted line can make a file difficult to work with. Blocks Furniture and other spatial planning objects can ayer nL be assigned to a specific layer.

Quite often 3D models can be high res, which can really slow down a computer’s si o Dimensions en performance. By putting them on their own layer you Dim can hide them while working on the scheme and turn them on when you are ready to plot or render a scene. Lineweights Colour You can further identify specific groups of objects such as furniture, window frames, etc.

When t Base drawing making changes to lineweights or dotted lines it can be beneficial to place them on an individual layer so you can make quick amendments to a line type. If reference or as shared information. They can be brought the plans are organized into layers you can quickly switch in on a separate layer and then switched off when you between each floor plane. Move It can be difficult to move a complex object, One example would be the import of an image file of especially if it is made up of ungrouped lines.

You can use a plan to trace the linework as a CAD drawing. You would the Layer option to place all the related geometry on its be able to alter the drawing at source with Photoshop, own layer. A typical Xref file in AutoCAD would be a common drawing detail or a drawing template with notes that Layer Groups You can further develop the density of the would be used as a block and be common to multiple layer information by creating a Layer Group, a group of drawings.

Any edit of this block or reference would be common layers; for example, all of the furniture in the carried through to every drawing that contained that scheme may be placed in a layer group reference, therefore making the update of common drawing data more efficient.

Note: often with reference files they are not embedded in the actual file, they are a reference to the location of the file, a path to where the file is kept.

You may need to keep a folder with the reference file as well as your working file. AutoCAD Xref example. The reference drawing is shown in grey to indicate that it is a reference. The Layer Properties empty layers or drawing fragments. Purging your drawings gets rid of unused layers, annotation styles, blocks, etc. Most of the Default options are activated by a 0. Current layer: 0 Search for layer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Filters S..

Another layer level called Classes organizes line scale, line colour, etc. The You can create new classes and set the lineweight: every Dimensions Layer Options [all dimensions are drawn on line you create while that classes is active will be placed in this Class as default] is also based in the Classes layer.

Layer0 Layer palette options provide you with visibility and Layer1 colour. While it is a simple interface, you can still use the layer function to organize your work effectively. It is primarily an AutoCAD exercise but it can be the keyboard too, but since these interfaces do not have a applied to other programs such as Vectorworks and SketchUp command line interface you will use keyboard shortcuts.

The exercise will introduce these tools one well then choose to try the same exercise again using an icon- at a time. This is an exercise that should be repeated SketchUp. As you will see, the software has little relevance; it is as many times as necessary to build your skills. You are going to use the command line for all sections of the exercise, as there are now no icons present.

Note that dimension lines should be drawn lighter than or in a different colour to the main plan lines. NOTE: It is good practice to take your hand off the mouse when entering a measurement. After entering the line measurement press Enter.

Scroll the wheel of the middle mouse button to zoom out further and press it down to pan around the drawing. You should always use a mouse rather than a trackpad. Scroll the middle mouse button to zoom in and out Hold the middle mouse button down to pan move a drawing around the window Middle mouse button www. This can be Copy. A double click on You can select more than one line to measurement, in the direction you most icons will bring up more icon offset as long as they all need to be choose preferences.

Zoom in to select a copy by midpoint. Draw in a line in the top left-hand corner using your snaps offset along the given dimensions. Offset line in this direction Draw this Line in Draw these lines in. Draw the two lines as indicated. Enter X on the keyboard. Continue to draw the missing lines as shown below. Shift key. The palette can be of layers. They can be added by using you want to work on.

The Layers opened by selecting the Stack icon the plus sign and chosen by selecting Properties dialogue can be opened by next to the Layers drop-down. The palette is selecting the Stack icon. Within the Layers Properties window you can adjust and add layers to the drawing. Line colour, lineweight, type, etc. Layer0 doors windows 3d windows 20′-0″ -0″ 5′-0″ doors 3d windows doors www. Now we need to tidy up the unwanted and crossing lines used in its construction.

Follow the diagram below and delete the unwanted lines. You will then be able to trim. If you cannot trim a line then the Delete command will delete it. The Type in M to select the Move tool other programs, so this will take time Arc tool requires three points and move over the arc entity to master. Use Enter to Select a midpoint or endpoint to Type 3 and draw in two three-point reactivate the tool and draw in a grip edit arcs anywhere on the screen second curve.

There is no tool as such that performs a grip mode then drag into edit — it is normally executed by invoking the grips when position. The crosshair in Command The screenshots on this page illustrate the variations mode. Press Escape if you possible with grip edits.

You will notice that for an arc there want to get out of a tool. These can all be used to alter the arc form. SketchUp Select and drag using the Move tool.

Draw the arcs anywhere in the window and use the grips to You also use the Move tool move the arc into place. Vectorworks Experiment with the type of arc you create.

Select and modify using the Select tool. If it does grip edit. This can save you the trouble not then repeat the exercise until you of redrawing an entity.

This is a suitable format for 3ds Max, dimensions and text. Maya, SolidWorks, etc. In theory the export from one program to another should In presentation terms CAD drawings are often devoid be a simple process. In reality it can be quite a buggy of any variation in lineweights; with the default. It is important to use or whole plans disappearing all together. Certain programs the lineweight functionality in your CAD program. If you do intend to move from either SketchUp or Export compatibility Vectorworks into a different 3D program such as 3ds Max or Maya, it is best to try an export while you are still Vectorworks: exchange of drawings in 2D and 3D between in Plan mode and complete the 3D modelling in that AutoCAD and Vectorworks is generally good.

If you have completed a 3D final model and the export is flawed then there is a lot to lose. SketchUp: this can be problematic and data may get lost. The way SketchUp works with surfaces rather than true solids causes issues, where objects are not true solids. A A Lift up curtain wall In AutoCAD it can appear very complicated — indeed it is! There are two spaces in AutoCAD.

One is called Model space, and this is what we have used so far. The other space is called Paperspace; this is where you would traditionally lay out your drawings.

Most of the tools of annotation are set up for use in Paperspace rather than Model space. To keep things simple the annotation tools introduced are formatted for Model space — so you can carry on working in this space. Within Paperspace you import viewports of your model — they can be set to plan top , isometric or any view you choose.

You then scale the view to so that it is appropriate for the paper size, e. You can also annotate the paper with text, title boxes and so on. Select the Modify New Page Setup Manager Plot Drafting Standard Setup Import Layout as Sheet Export Layout to Model The scale will typically be DPI set to as the drawing will be scaled in Paper paperspace.

Once the settings are made Paper size Plot options size they are saved ready for plotting. ISO A3 By default there is a single viewport, the layout may contain as many viewports as you require, you can set the view ports to different views such as top or iso view. You activate this my toggling the tab labelled Paper or Model in the status bar. This can appear confusing initially as you will be used to Model space being in the black environment. By selecting Model in Layout mode you will have a link to the model in Model space.

You will know you the useful Viewports toolbar are in Model space as the viewport will be outlined with a black box. Viewport options Set scale In Paperspace Layout mode you can resize the viewport, Scale to fit add additional viewports, further annotation such as text and dotted lines.

You can 2 Pick the lineweight from the preselect the lineweight before you draw the line drop-down menu or, as I prefer, you can select a line and then use the drop-down tab to specify the lineweight. You refusing to change weight or missing need to ensure the Show Lineweights bits out, just trace over it with the dialogue is turned on.

Polyline tool and then select that line for applying the weight. If you alter the scale of a dotted line in Model space it may no longer display correctly in Paperspace. The screengrab below shows you where dimensions, dotted lines and text are located within the classic AutoCAD interface. Dimensions are selected from the menu bar or the Dotted lines can be selected from the Properties palette. Dimension toolbar. Select the appropriate tool — Linear Dotted lines are not loaded by default — you need to load them is the simplest to use.

Remember to select a line. Text is selected from the Draw toolbar. Text: Text entered in Paperspace is relative to the paper You can easily adjust the scale of an object by selecting it size: e. Dotted lines: although a line will not look dotted in Model A double click on an object will open up the properties of space, it will appear dotted and scaled in Paperspace.

Alternatively, use the PROP keyboard entry. The text size is approximately the Linetype scale has been increased from 1 to Initially the dotted mm in Model space. It is better practice to enter the size of the text in line will not look dotted in the viewpoint, so I have altered its scale in the the MText dialogue. Properties dialogue.

The text of the dimension measurement follows that of MText. I have increased the text height to to make the measurement visible. I have also set the offset distance of the vertical line so it does not touch the dotted line.

This is the Text rotation 0 most reliable in terms of scaling. Text view direction Left-to-Right Measurement AutoCAD has a very You can create a key of lineweights, powerful tool that lets you assign an existing property to dotted lines, etc. Use the Properties another object. The Match Properties tool allows you to dialogue to format them, then use Match Properties to assign them to individual assign formatted lineweights, text sizes, dimensions, hatch or multiple lines. You can change a default line to a different lineweight or dotted You can also use layers to organize line with a click of your mouse.

This program is the most suitable for year’s usage. To add to the dilemma, a drawing in the free annotating 2D and 3D drawings. SketchUp itself has version of SketchUp cannot be saved as a useful format dimensions and text facilities within the program, but it for importing into other programs such as AutoCAD.

SketchUp Again, you need the Pro functionality to be able to do this. You may well feel that another program may be more suitable for annotating a drawing. AutoCAD or Vectorworks, or vice versa. The main difference is the way that Google have You will need to alter the visual style of your SketchUp bundled them as separate programs.

On the downside, the LayOut program is only available with the Pro version of SketchUp, so you will have to buy it rather than use the free version. To set the view to white you need to deselect Background Colour and set the render style to Vector linework.

Note that the scale must be relative to the drawing and paper size. The view — top, back, front, isometric, etc. Once you have set the scale you can alter the size of the viewport. Ensure that the Preserve Scale on Resize option has been checked. This example uses A3. You will notice that a viewport has been created, typically with a Sketch Shade. If you follow the SketchUp-style format it will import as a wireframe with white background.

Save As Scrapbook Revert to Saved Insert You can update the view in your Page Setup You can now use the of line, dimension or text you can then LayOut program to add annotation.

Dimensions are very effective and easy to use; they scale themselves automatically to your chosen zoom point. You may develop your own style of dimension through the Dimension Style dialogue. Working with text is a fairly simple process, similar to the The post-format approach is useful way you would use text in Photoshop.

You have two ways to because lines can be selected at the access the options but they differ sightly. The drop-down end of a drawing task, saving you from the repetitive task of changing back and menu offers the option of increasing or reducing the size of forth between line types.

You may also set the stroke weight of the dotted line and add arrows or endcaps. You can either change the page size or alter the scale of the drawing. We will now change the paper size to A3 and also change the scale of the drawing to This removes unwanted page tiling and watermarks.

Layer Scale: 1: Drawing Area: Other Change Choose the printable area of the document. There are various types of 2 Select a line to apply a lineweight; deselect when dotted line to choose from and they scale well if you have complete set the page scale.

Other format options are available too, such as arrowheads and line colour. The text created is set Use the Eyedropper tool to post-format attributes. The default text 1 Activate the Eyedropper tool to select the object size is 10, but you may format the text font, size, etc. This ensures you can see the dimension after it has been The Dimension tool resides within the Tool sets palette, drawn.

To keep the use of dimensions simple is the Linear Dimension tool we will set up some Class View settings before we use the Dimension tool.

In terms of its file structure when exported from CAD it is a vector-based format, which in simple terms means that you preserve the line quality. If you save or export the same drawing as a jpeg or a bitmap then these will be subject to pixilation.

This is quite a Clockwise from top left: icons for common fault in raster-based exports. A PDF, on the other hand, can be readily emailed, used in a web page, imported into page layout programs like Photoshop and Illustrator, and printed.

Overall, the most beneficial part of printing to PDF is the avoidance of waste and cost. By exporting first you can check the drawing — re-export updated PDFs until you think the drawing is 99 per cent ready to print. As you zoom in output the print at a smaller size, and at home on your you will notice the line quality is good as it is a home printer rather than on a plotter.

As you zoom has already been formatted by you, so the plot scale will in you will notice the line quality is very poor and pixillated be You can improve the your chosen paper, e.

In this example I have chosen A2. When plotting Model space it is best to select a bigger paper size in Paperspace you will have set the paper size. You can choose Landscape or 6 Use the Preview button to check the plot. You may need Portrait in this extended dialogue to alter the settings; settings to tweak are normally Window pick or Scale.

It takes a bit of practice to get the desired results. We have already set the page extents to A3 so we can just export the drawing as a PDF. If you 2 Fit View to Page want to set a scale then you will need to set the scale view Width: Height: This will allow you to export the plot in a similar way to that completed in SketchUp layout.

A designer needs the ability to sketch out and explore Middle design intentions through the development of basic A 3D sketch model created out of scrap volumetric forms.

A sketch exploration can be developed material. An effective and quick method of quickly and manipulated instantly, and is essential for communicating a design.

In the early stages this representation can take A parametric 3D computer model that the form of an isometric or simple one-point perspective has been developed to create a physical sketch. You will often find it useful to sketch out your prototype using CNC fabrication proposals before attempting to model a scheme in CAD.

Model making Physical model making is also a important skill in 3D representation. From sketch to final presentation model, the medium is a very effective form of 3D communication. In many cases it can be the best way to develop and communicate a scheme. Hand construction techniques The better your understanding of hand-drawn, hand- crafted construction, the better you will be at creating 3D forms on the computer.

From my own experience, drafting an isometric to scale, or constructing a physical scale model has proved invaluable in my understanding of 3D CAD construction. Mathematical formulas are performed instantaneously as the user plays with the fluid forms. These forms and shapes would be difficult or near impossible for most of us to draw by hand. These forms can be built, then the computer model used to set up the fabrication and construction process.

The recent development in CNC and 3D printing technology also gives us the opportunity to create physical prototypes from complex computer models. We are now able to create those forms and constructions that were once impossible to create by hand, which is very exciting. The ability to actually create The Jellyfish House by and manufacture the structure means that this type of IwamatoScott Architecture parametric form and structure is increasingly being created introduces us to a unprecedented as architecture.

The use of self- Computer modelling and fabrication are to become generative and parametric an essential component in architectural design. The conceptual [Building Information Management, see Section 5]. The 3D model starts to blur the boundaries between form, surface and construction. SketchUp has a All the software examples are capable of completing the larger tool set and Vectorworks an extended tool set.

In all same tasks [apart from some limitations with SketchUp]. The interfaces are different but if you associate yourself with the different setups you should be able to use any of 3ds Max, Maya and Form Z are primarily 3D modelling the programs effectively.

But in keeping with command. All the commands are listed and easily typed in, which can save you the time it Customize M O DEL takes to search for icons. Below are useful Command Line tools that you can simply type to activate. Similar to other modelling and programs. You have an interface with tabs. There is a drop-down menu that will the tools you need in the interface.

This is useful, but also allow you to select different object types, such as lines quite intimidating for the novice user. It would be impossible to cover the whole program here — that would be a book in itself. You can then Create refer back to this section as you work.

In each case it is a simple process. You can use this to set the viewports to top, plan and home, which is a perspective view. You can also use the scroll and pan functionality of the mouse. Holding down the Ctrl key when you do this also allows you to orbit the model. You can change from 4 to 1 viewport for a larger working area, and Zoom and Extents are also located here.

In terms of There are some similarities to 3ds Max in the interface compatibility with other software, especially 2D drawing setup, such as the position of the Move and Rotate tools. Maya uses a camera setup for whatever view you the space bar. It can sometimes be simpler to access this choose; even if you have not inserted a camera then this is menu rather than searching for a tool or operation.

Often when you bring 3D models into the program the imported geometry will disappear into hyperspace. You can give yourself a fair chance by scaling whatever you are working on into metres rather than millimetres. Maya likes simple units, 1— You will therefore commands in Maya. Export All Export Selection If you are new to Maya, you may well choose to work from Export Selected to Mudbox. Use the Lego approach to create 3D primitives and View Image For reliability, import drawings very different.

As a modelling program it has some wonderful intuitive As with most import actions, you will usually be presented capabilities, especially for the creation of complex objects, with a series of options. Symbol Options Text Options Display Resolution In this example we have the model window as a default perspective view. I have also deselected A and W in the Coordinates palette, which allows you to draw relative anywhere in the working space. Deselect for freedom!

Project Colors Coordinates Edit Menu In 2D terms the DWG is the best option. You do have the ability to import image data, such as jpeg and PDF, but these will not allow you to snap accurately to a line as an object in space.

All the Zoom tools etc. The screengrab below helps you to locate modelling tools. View tool set www. The le. Save As Template As a method you will be required extrude 2D polygon forms before they will be Issue Manager Import IFC Page Setup Import EPSF Import PDF Import PICT Import Worksheet Pick the Architectural metric template.

Import VectorScript Without going into the specific science and mathematics of the system, you can think of the X and Y as the typical environment you first experience when drawing a plan; 3D modelling takes this one step further with the inclusion of the Z axis.

By adding the Z axis, a 2D object is given height. Many programs will greet you with a four-plane interface. This typically has the top, front, back and perspective view, which are all the view elements needed to effectively model in three dimensions. By default you can return to a classic perspective view to carry on working on the ground plane and the Cartesian coordinates remain at XYZ.

This allows you to work in a default perspective view and to model in any direction of your choice. It is sometimes useful to set XYZ coordinates to an angled reference if your geometry is not rectangular, i. Different programs have different ways of Cartesian coordinate system.

AutoCAD, for example, rotates the system automatically as you use the Set View commands, front, back, etc. It can and often does leave you in a strange configuration where you can only extrude on the vertical face of an object rather than in the typical up direction of XYZ. Programs such as SketchUp fully automate the working coordinates direction. You will be unaware that it is changing your coordinate references, which is another reason why so many people find it easy to use.

The Vectorworks 3D modelling environment is built around setting the working plane, as are other programs such as Form Z, which use a method of set reference planes. Presspull and dynamic auto tracking has in many ways replaced the need to rotate the XYZ working plane. It has an automated reference system that has the ability to pick up a face, allowing you to work at any given angle. That said, there are always times in 3D modelling when you will need to modify the XYZ system.

This will automatically pick up objects by face. The perspective here shows the typical XYZ setup. It has no option to rotate the view, plan view, etc. Untitled www. This is very useful for working at odd angles.

Plane methodology. This is similar to the UCS and reference planes we have seen in other software. By setting up a series of working planes you can navigate and draw in your chosen direction rather than just from the ground plane in Select face the Z direction. Once selected you will be able to select a face of an object, which will in turn set the working plane in that direction.

This is generally done when a drawing is Planes palette to set the plane as an additional Working complete and for presentation purposes. When using the Plane. It will allow you to create a 3D solid from Taking the example of a box, you can create this directly, complex 2D surfaces by creating a field from closed extrude it from a square, or presspull it with the Presspull objects. It will also allow you to add and subtract to a face tool.

This choice is important as inevitably things will of an existing 3D form. Computer modelling by its very nature is temperamental. The ability to try it a different way, such as directly creating a 3D solid rather than extruding it, is key to efficient development. Often users will persist with the same operation, trying to make it work. The problem is often not software related but the chosen method of construction, or poorly constructed objects.

While there will inevitably be the occasional late night, it is best to consider the different solutions available for one task. There are nearly always at least three ways to do the same thing. It is a method of direct object generation, created by specifying two points and then a height. The Extrude command allows you to derive a 3D object from a surface object. For example, a rectangle can be transformed into a box using an Extrude command; Box a circle can be extruded into a cylinder in the same way.

Presspull will allow you to extrude an object in both directions, you can also subtract from an object. Extrude will make 3D a 2D closed object. The box command will normally allow you to directly create the 3D object. The Extrude tool requires an existing object to extrude: if it is a closed object then it will be created as a solid; if it is an open object it will be a surface mesh object. Beware, though — with complicated geometry it will often freeze the computer and you may lose work.

As a general rule I always put a save on before using it and move the mouse over the area to be presspulled. This will create a closed object out of multiple lines. Use your snaps for accuracy. Use the C command as the last move and it will close the line. Activate the 3D Snap icon and right-click on it. Width: You can apply multiple modify actions to a prepare your plan carefully you can perform an equivalent single object operation. On a simple level it is as easy as drawing a rectangle Polygons corner to corner and then giving it height.

In this case this is completed with the Polygon tool. Maya of the object needs to be scaled or you will loose your in Inputs. You extents — the model will vanish. The Create Polygon tool allows you to create polygon surfaces that can be extruded.

Due to it being a polygon it is limited to rectilinear or triangular geometry. Trace around the plan work with Point Snap You need to ensure you have the Polygons drop-down on and, when complete, selected; this gives you access to the Windows menu.

As with other 3D software, you are advised to prepare your 2D drawing as a closed object and then you can easily extrude in a similar fashion to Presspull. Maya is good in terms of assembling a surface from a group of lines. This method is suitable for creating solids out of curves and other non-rectilinear geometry.

Cube Options Enter dimensions on keyboard Preset Width This tool works in tandem with a TIP selection of object types and is a frequently used feature in If this is selected by These work Form Z. The Extrude command is located within the Derivatives tools, which is in a different location to that of the Object Creation tools.

Deselect A and W from the prompts. You can now click anywhere in the window and create an object by typing in relative sizes. In the example of a mm cube you would click anywhere in the screen. In the prompts you would enter , for the X and Y values, press enter and specify mm for the height [ Z value]. All objects have to be created from surfaces. You can draw a 3D primitive such as a box anywhere in the modelling interface. Specify the two corners then give the object height.

Select the object. You can edit the width and height using the Object Info palette. After extruding the box element you can select isometric view to see the results. If you draw with 2D tools in isometric view they will default to the plan screen until they become 3D objects. In CAD terms this can mean a simple move of typical level you will experience is to move an object.

In animation to alter or sculpt the object’s geometry. Many programs will the modification process can represent the growth or keep a record of all the modifications you have made to an transition of one object to another. The ability to modify object, a history, allowing you to return to a previous state. Meshing or adding subdivisions to a solid object such as a cube allows a greater flexibility in the sculpting of complex The main transform modifications are typically Move, forms.

They are often grouped as icons in the to create objects, as the polygon count can be suitable low same field. There are many levels of these commands such in comparison to other modelling methods. The lines must intersect with no gaps. A surface object is principally a 2D plane or object, such as a circle.

These elements are commonly revered to as: point or Segment vertex, segment, face, object. A sphere is actually made of either triangular of rectangular faces; its smoothness is dependent on how many faces or facets it has. A box object can be initially made up of six faces, but in most modelling programs this can be increased with subdivisions. The diagram to the right shows a box that has had three subdivisions applied to all faces.

The sphere has had 12 subdivisions applied to it so you can clearly see the make-up of flat rectangular and triangular geometry. Polygon modelling is a very efficient way of creating complex objects. Typically, the fewer the faces, the faster the object will render; this is quite important if you have lots of objects in a model.

These low polygon objects are often used in real-time applications such as video games because they can be very efficient objects. Above Below An example of the subdivision of a This model of a house began as Subdivisions and topology sphere and cube, the sphere uses a single cube: subdivisions were If a simple object, such as a box or a sphere, has had triangular geometry to resolve added to sculpt and create the subdivisions applied to it, it can easily be modified and the poles.

This is how most objects start life in animation — as a singular object. The terraced house shown to the right was created from a singular box that had subdivisions applied to it. The subdivisions were then manipulated to create the house. This employed a relatively small file size considering the complexity. The third diagram shows a sphere and box that have been manipulated using the various edit options available to us.

A face has been extruded, a point has been moved and a segment of the object moved. Various software programs use different terminology to describe these topological points but they are all the same in principle. Some tasks may even be performed better with the 2D tool equivalent, as this will ensure the object stays on the ground plane. When you use the 3D tools you will be able to move using the Gizmo interface.

Mesh Box, Sphere The Mesh option will create a subdivided box or, with additional options, it will create a sphere, etc. You can modify by snap points — endpoint, midpoint, etc. This keyboard command allows Specify strerch point or 1. It will map a surface to any collection of lines, X, Y or Z directions, as long as they are connected You can modify the point or edge of an object by using the CTL Pick function.

This can be activated by pressing the CTL key as you pick an object. You can specify subdivisions at the point of creation after an object has or the subdivisions can be added later by selecting the Box been created. Modifier List As with subdivision, the topological levels are integral to Box the interface.

The easiest way to activate the Pick selection is to right click on an object and select the Edit option, which in this case is Mesh.

Parameters Length: If you want to return to Object select that level. They are interchangeable as you use the Edit command. A right click pick on an object, showing the Editable Mesh option selected www. By default, the Rotate centre of any of the Transform tools may not be at the point Scale or axis that you require, so you may well need to specify a point or vertices before trying a move or scale.

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